| G.M. Seddon, M.A.
The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether and how the quality of
students' explanations of chemical phenomena was affected by changing the method
of giving the question and answer, respectively, between the spoken and written
formats. It also focused on these effects for different questions and different
students. Two experiments used the same population of first-year university
students who attempted the same set of questions, variously presented and
answered in each of the four different ways of combining these two methods of
questioning and answering. From the results, it was concluded that, for these
students and questions, there was no observable difference between the
performance of the students using any of these combinations of formats.
Journal of Science Education 10 (3), 337-342 (1988)